Illustration Credits

  • GALLERY I: Old World Order

    1. Hendrik Cornelisz Vroom, The Return to Amsterdam of the Second Expedition to the East Indies. 1599, oil on canvas. Rijksmuseum, The Netherlands.
    2. Ignatius Lux, Jacob van Heemskerck. c. 1659–1713, engraving. Rijksmuseum, The Netherlands, F. G. Waller Bequest, Amsterdam.
    3. Corte ende sekere beschrijvinghe vant veroverern der rijcke ende gheweldighe krake comende uyte gheweste van China, 1604. National Library of the Netherlands.
    4. Jacques de Gheyn, Hugo Grotius, silverpoint drawing, 1598. Leiden University Library.
    5. Jan Anthonisz van Ravesteyn, Hugo de Groot at the Age of Sixteen. 1599, oil on panel. Fondation Custodia.
    6. Grotius's Escape from Loevenstein Castle in 1621. c. 1790, engraving.
    7. Workshop of Michiel van Mierevelt, Portrait of Hugo de Groot (1583–1645). 1631, oil on panel. Rijksmuseum, The Netherlands
    8. C. Paul Jennewein, Hugo Grotius (1583-1645). 1950, marble 28’’ dia. Photograph, Architect of the Capitol.
    9. Contra falsas francorum litteras 1491 pro defensione honoris serenissimi Romanorum Regis semper Augusti. Augsburg, 1492. Beinecke Rare Books Library, Yale University.
    10. Anne of Brittany (1476–1514). Colored lithograph of miniature from Heures d'Anne de Bretagne, 1753. Getty Images, Universal Images Group, Editorial # 624465506.
    11. Jacques Callot, Le Pillage d’une Ferme. 1633. From Les Grandes Misères de la Guerre. Alamy, Image ID EDPC4K.
    12. Johann Philipp Abelin, Sack of Magdeburg 1631. 1659, engraving.
    13. Matthias Quad or workshop of Franz Hogenberg, L’Escalade à Genève, 1602. c. 1622–1626, etching with watercolor.
    14. Adolf Ulrich Wertmüller, Edmond Charles Genet (1763-1834). 1784, oil on canvas. Albany Institute of History and Art.
    15. Thomas Rowlandson, The Devils Darling, 1814, hand-colored etching. Getty Images.
    16. Napoleon I Submitting to the British Law and Surrendering, 14 July 1815. c. 1815, lithography. Getty Images, Corbis Historical Collection, Editorial # 587492778.
    17. War Department, Hon. James Polk, Tenn. President of U.S. c. 1840s, daguerreotype. U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (National Archives Identifier: 528666).
    18. Simon & Schuster.
    19. John C. H. Grabill, Tasunka, Ota (alias Plenty Horse[s]), the Slayer of Lieut. Casey, near Pine Ridge, S.D., 1891, photographic print. U.S. Library of Congress.
    20. Mathew B. Brady, Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry, c. 1856–58, salted paper print from glass negative. Metropolitan Museum.
    21. American Warship. c. 1854, woodblock print. Nagasaki Prefecture.
    22. Wilhelm Heine, Passing the Rubicon: The Japan Expedition Under Commodore Perry. New York: E. Brown, Jr., 1855–1856. Special Collections, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA.
    23. Students Studying in the Netherlands, c. 1861-64, photograph. National Diet Library.
    24. Nishi Amane, Bankoku kōhō (1868), 3. Waseda University Library.
    25. Nishi Amane, c. 1870–1897, photograph. National Diet Library
    26. The landing of the forces of the Un'yo at Ganghwa Island. c. 1875, woodblock print.
  • GALLERY II: Transformation

    1. A Chicago Lawyer Salmon Levinson Drafted the Plan for Relief. January 21, 1933. Acme News Pictures, Inc.
    2. Newspaper Enterprise Association (NEA), Salmon Levinson, The San Francisco News, March 11, 1935, Salmon Levinson Papers, University of Chicago Library, Box 30, Folder
    3. John Dewey. c. 1910–1920, photograph. New York Public Library Digital Collections, The Miriam and Ira D. Wallach Division of Art, Prints and Photographs.
    4. Staff of the Inquiry at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. Box 296, JSP CUL.
    5. Washington State Branch (Seattle) Members with No More War Signs. September 1922, high sepia photograph. Swarthmore College Peace Collection, Photograph Exhibit, 1920–1929 Events, Group Photos of the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom, #B3.
    6. Republican Senators Borah, Lodge, and Smoot. May 7, 1924, photograph. Alamy, Everett Collection Historical, Image ID: CWANR1.
    7. James T. Shotwell. March 1, 1927, photograph. Box 296, JSP CUL.
    8. Aristide Briand and Gustav Stresemann. 1926, photograph. Dutch National Archives, The Hague, Fotocollectie Algemeen Nederlands Persbureau ,1945–1989.
    9. Ullstein Bild, Briand‑Kellogg Treaty. August 27, 1928, photograph. Getty Images, Editorial # 545728479.
    10. Bettmann, Frank Kellogg and M. Briand at Office. August 30, 1928, photograph. Getty Images, Editorial # 515302928.
    11. National Council for Prevention of War, Help “Tell the Last Man” About the Pact. 1928, postcard.
    12. “Get off the Earth!,” New York Herald Tribune, July 15, 1928. PARS International, JTS CUL.
    13. Japanese Ambassador Signing Kellogg-Briand Pact. July 24, 1929, photograph. Library of Congress. Getty Images, Corbis Historical Collection, Editorial #: 640475759.
    14. Secretary of State Henry L. Stimson (right) and former Secretary Frank B. Kellogg leaving the State Department. July 25, 1929, photograph. U.S. Department of State.
    15. Ullstein Bild, League of Nations. September 9, 1929, photograph. Getty Images, Editorial # 545738365.
    16. Lytton Commission. 1931. Alamy, Image ID FGD7M.
    17. League of Nations, Chart of the Mukden Incident, Report of the Commission of Enquiry, League of Nations Publications: Political, Official No. C.663.M.320, Map No. 6, 1932.
    18. Japan Leaves League of Nations. 1933, screen grab from video. Getty Images, The March of Time Collection.
    19. Bettmann, Chinese Demonstrating Against Yosuke Matsuoka. March 24, 1933, photograph. Getty Images, Editorial # 517293538.
    20. Dr. Seuss (Theodore Geisel), The Old Man of the Sea. 1941, political cartoon. Special Collections & Archives, UC San Diego.
    21. Bettmann, Sumner Welles Smoking with George Kennan. March 22, 1940, photograph. Getty Images, Editorial # 515167444. (Though dated March 22, the photo was almost certainly taken earlier, since, by his own account, Welles left Europe from Rome on March 20. Welles, The Time for Decision, 144.)
    22. Bettmann, Hull and Welles Call at White House. May 10, 1940, photograph. Getty Images, Editorial # 515347010.
    23. L. C. Priest, President Roosevelt and Winston Churchill seated on the quarterdeck of HMS Prince of Wales for a Sunday service during the Atlantic Conference, August 10, 1941, photograph. Imperial War Museum. Photograph A 4815.
    24. “Provisional Outline of International Organization, (prepared by J.T.S., August 31, 1942)” (Document 99), August 31, 1942. Box 189, folder 8, SWP FDRL
    25.  James T. Shotwell. Undated, photograph. Box 296, JSP CUL.
    26. Dumbarton Oaks Conference. 1944, photograph. National Archives, Washington, D.C.. Getty Images, Gamma-Keystone Collection, Editorial # 615313078.
    27. Picknickers from Dumbarton Oaks. Sept. 9, 1944, photograph Alamy, Keystone Pictures USA, Image ID EOKPF3.
    28. PhotoQuest, At Yalta for “The Big Four.” February 1, 1945, photograph. Getty Images, Editorial # 149012879.
    29. PhotoQuest, Stalin & Churchill at Crimea Conference. February 14, 1945, photograph. Getty Images, Editorial # 525184973.
    30. Ullstein Bild, Carl Schmitt, Jurist. April 8, 1930, photograph. Getty Images, Editorial # 537152649..
    31. Ullstein Bild, Hans Kelsen, Portrait. Jan. 1, 1930, photograph. Getty Images, Editorial # 541040891.
    32. Ullsein Bild, Carl Schmitt, Jurist. January 1, 1932, photograph. Getty Images, Editorial # 541055955.
    33. Index cards to the war crimes case files (“Cases Not Tried”), 1944–48 and witnesses and defendants in war crimes cases, 1946–48, Record Group 549 Records of United States Army, Europe 549.2, Records of U.S. Army, Europe (USAEUR) 1933–64, Records of the War Crimes Branch of the Judge Advocate General Section, U.S. National Archives and Records Administration (College Park, MD) (photograph taken for authors by Sidney Cheser).
    34. Bettmann, Defendants at Nuremberg Trials. 1946, photograph. Getty Images, Editorial #: 515586328.
    35. Bettmann, Robert H. Jackson at Nurnberg Trials. 1946, photograph. Getty Images, Editorial # 549379825.
    36. Kelsen Briefmarke oesterreichische Post,
    37. Hersch Lauterpacht. Undated photograph. Courtesy of Sir Elihu Lauterpacht.
    38. The Illustrated London News, December 8, 1945.
  • GALLERY III: New World Order

    1. Hersch Lauterpacht. c. 1955-1960, photograph. Courtesy of Sir Elihu Lauterpacht.
    2. First General Assembly, The First Session of the United Nations General Assembly Opened on the 10th January 1946 at Central Hall in London. January 10, 1946, photograph. United Nations Photo #71048.
    3. United Nations Permanent Headquarters. September 1, 1951, photograph. United Nations Photo.
    4. A Month and a Half After the State. June 30, 1948, photograph. Getty Images, AFP Collection, Editorial # 102248160.
    5. Martin Moos, Flag of Iceland flying at Logberg (Law Rock.), Thingvellir National Park. Undated photograph. Getty Images, Creative # 148646217.
    6. David Rubinger, Greeks Search for Relatives. October 29, 1974, photograph. Getty Images, Editorial #530701316.
    7. Evy Mages, The United Nations Security Council Vote. November 29, 1990, photograph. Getty Images, Editorial # 51533322.
    8. Chappatte, WTO rejects U.S. Steel Tariffs. November 12, 2003, cartoon. International Herald Tribune.
    9. Evgeny Feldman, Euromaidan in Kiev. November 27, 2013, photograph.
    10. Elizabeth Arrott, Unidentified Gunmen on Patrol at Simferopol Airport in Ukraine's Crimea Peninsula. 28 February 2014, photograph. Voice of America.
    11. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, NASA Ozone Watch. 2016,
    12. CSIS/Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative, Fiery Cross Reef Tracker, Photo Gallery,
    13. Fiery Cross Reef Tracker. 2017. CSIS/Asia Maritime Transparency Initiative,
    14. Sayd Qutb (Sayed Kotb) meeting with Dr. William Ross. 1949, photograph. Colorado State College Bulletin, October 17, 1949, No. 12.
    15. Sayyid Qutb. Undated photograph. LexLex Encyclopedia, http://i‑
    16. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. 2014, image grab from propaganda video. Getty Images, Editorial # 632521832.
    17. The End of Sykes-Picot, 2014, image grab from propaganda video. YouTube (since removed under YouTube’s Terms of Service).